Sunday, April 24, 2016

Unity Community Affinity Space Project Presentation

The affinity space project featuring Unity Community as part of INTE 5320 Games & Learning, UC Denver. Please provide comments here in the blog and for review.

Please respond to at least one question from each of the following question sets aligned to the criteria of our affinity space project.

A. Observing the affinity space:
  • What observations about game/ing communities and cultures are shared?
  • What does it mean to be an insider? How do you know? And how would you describe this space to an outsider?
  • What are the cultural norms – the means of interaction and discussion – that are prominent in this space? And why?

B. Contributing to the affinity space:
  • How did your peer first begin contributing to the affinity space?
  • How did other members of the affinity space respond?
  • How did the nature of your peer’s contributions change over time? And why?
  • What insight about games (and games and learning) did your peer learn through her/his contributions?

C. Reflecting upon affinity space participation:
  • What does your peer perceive to be the strengths of this affinity space?
  • What does your peer perceive to be the limitations of this space?
  • How did your peer learn about games and learning?
  • How was learning social, collaborative, and/or contested?
  • How would you describe your peer’s experience learning in another setting (i.e. not Canvas, not a “classroom”) as complementary to our other course activities?

D. Connecting affinity space participation to literature and theory:
  • What 3 features from Gee and Hayes (2008) describe your peer’s experience, and why?
  • What other aspects of learning theory helped your peer to understand this affinity space?
  • What other examples of games and learning literature were useful points of reference, and why?

Sunday, April 17, 2016

Who Are Some Key Members of Unity Community?

The Structure of Unity Community

Unity community is an expansive affinity space for members interested in all things Unity. There are approximately 32 threads ranging in topics from “Getting Started” to “Commercial: Job Offering.” The affinity space is so large, I have only focused on a few topics like “Game Design” and “Works in Progress.” I just sort of dived right in to see what sort of things people are posting and talking about without exploring the overall structure. After living in the space for some time, I’m starting to look around and notice some systems in place to better analyze who’s contributing, who’s visiting the space, and how members are measured.

At the top of the forums menu there is a button to click “members” which takes the user to a new page that displays members based on number of messages. These members are listed from the most posts to the least. A user can also click on”most likes,” “most points,” or “staff members.” All of these categories seem useful except “points” is not currently being fully utilized as everyone has 10 points. Although”points” seems like it would be a way to “gamify” an affinity space dedicated to gamers and developers, perhaps it is not being used because members think it might be cliché or they can see through what some might deem as “bullshit” (Bogost 2011). Most posts, and most likes seems to be the best way to currently analyze who is contributing to the affinity space. I’d like to know more about them.

The Three Most Notable Members in Unity Community

Based on the most current number of posts, I have discovered three “Notable Members” in Unity Community: Eric5h5, Dreamora, and Hippocoder. Hippocoder also has the most “likes” so I have ignored the “like” category for now to focus on these three active members based on the quantity of messages, assuming there may be some overlap with the number of “likes.” 

When I click on Eric5h5’s profile, I can see he has listed a website and links to some of his add-ons for Unity. It also shows “moderator” in his profile which would explain a large quantity of posts. He seems to be a programmer, although there is not much personal info listed on either his Unity profile or web page. The web page seems to feature his add-ons, which can be purchased, most dominantly. His news thread features bug fixes and mini-patches to his software. Perhaps his addons are frequently used which would necessitate having this bug or patch info readily available? Overall the website is clean but somewhat cheesy with stars and neon glow (kind of like Star Wars) but things like this are somewhat typical for those of the programmer variety.

Dreamora’s profile stands out from most others in the space because he included a picture of himself (I’m assuming) rather than a graphic or avatar. Avatar’s are common in gaming spaces so using a picture can be a bold move. What does it mean when someone includes a picture of themselves? Does this make them seem more professional in this space? In most other websites including an actual portrait of oneself is usually seen as professional, so I will assume that much may be true. When I click on Dreamora’s link to his website, I am greeted with some thoughtful words:
“I strongly believe that it is on us, the current generation, the set the paths to empower our kids and the following generations to achieve greater things than we ever could think of. As a ‘technology geek’ and a software developer, I strive to do so through technology, especially through ground breaking and highly empowering technologies that build upon augmented reality (AR), virtual reality (VR) and the open, easy to access technology of the web.”
Dreamora seems to think of himself as an educator by these words, and I can see he has a “learning” button on his website to link to the official Unity tutorials and he curates a “” page dedicated to “Unity Game Engine News, Informations & Learning Material.” This is essentially the same as the “Networked Learning Space” project in INTE 5665 for those UC Denver students familiar with that assignment. Dreamora is an “Interactive Media Engineer,” that has situated himself as an instructor or educator in Unity Community.

Hippocoder is also a moderator for Unity Community. His website SimianSquared is a British developer. The website does not feature much other than a large graphic and links to a couple of games created by SimianSquared. It’s hard to tell by this how Hippocoder is situated in Unity Community, but assuming he created these games, or a portion of them, he’s probably pretty talented. I needed to dig deeper so I check out his most recent posts by clicking on the link to this in his profile. I can see several posts in the “DOOM, are you excited?” thread so I went there to check out what he was saying. Hippocoder seems to recall the good old days of DOOM and says:
“Give me the retro classic turbo charged, or I may as well just buy a different game TBH. I won't be buying this one.”
Hippocoder in this case has positioned himself as a critic. And if he’s played the original DOOM when it came out, that would potentially put him in his late twenties to thirties. This possibly positions himself as a gaming veteran who’s seen it and done it all at least once, maybe 4-5 times in the case of sequels. I’ve also seen just as many posts where Hippocoder positions himself in technical inquiry. Needless to say it seems he is well rounded and versed enough to be a valued member of Unity Community.

Being a valued member
Given the above profiles and assumptions made by provided info, there are several ways to go about being a productive and essential member to Unity Community. However, it’s critical to be seen as credible and useful. It can be seen in postings from each member that they are savy enough to contribute to technical conversations. Each member also seems to be a veteran gamer offering critique on current video game industry products and happenings. They also seem to provide mostly nurturing commentary when it comes to advice. Although the occasional heated discussion, like that of the latest DOOM product, does reveal some mild flaming but not necessarily at other members but figures in the industry or developers instead. I look forward to learning more about how these community members are situated in Unity Community as the affinity space project comes to a close.

Bogost, Ian, “Gamification is Bullshit,” (2011)

Saturday, April 16, 2016

Being a Hero of The Storm

Play Journal Entry #5
As part of the Games and Learning course and study with University of Colorado Denver Information and Learning Technologies Master’s program, students will participate in both shared and individual play sessions. These play sessions are part of “learning by doing” and reflection necessary to understand what it means to be a learner through playing games. The play journals are a synthesis of scholarship and reflection on play per the chosen game.

How would you describe the social context of Heroes of the Storm, and how did this inform what it meant to play?

Game: Heroes of the Storm
Platform: PC (battlenet download)
Genre/type: RTS, action hero. Free to play microtransaction.
Players: Multi-player online or with AI players
Game familiarity: I have watched media about this game for a few years. I have only played it infrequently for 6 months. I still consider myself a “newb.”

I have not played this game with other players, only AI players as teammates and opponents. I would like to explore multiplayer matches with humans and a means for voice communication at some point. I don’t really feel comfortable doing this however until I explore more of the game and learn the shortcut keys and various nuances. I would also like to watch some YouTube video tutorials and read some articles about strategies and other game mechanics. The game does a pretty good job at guiding the player through a match, however there is a lot going on simultaneously so it’s relatively hard to follow all things.

The game universe is centered around Blizzard entertainment products. If you are a player new to Blizzard you may wonder how this odd combination of heroes and villains came together. I think Blizzard addresses this by providing a trailer for each hero or villain. For veteran Blizzard fans the game serves as a fantasy mashup with humorous elements. To play this game you should be familiar with the class types or roles, which are rather typical for Blizzard. Players may also need to have a basic understanding of the objectives of each battleground. Some knowledge of the maps helps as well. The website ultimately suggests to play the tutorials in game first before seeking too much information via the Heroes of the Storm website. Like any RTS, especially one developed by Blizzard who has a history of successful RTS games like Warcraft 1-3, players expect a solid tutorial experience which I believe Heroes of the Storm delivers.

What - if anything - did you learn during this particular play of Heroes of the Storm, and what lessons (more generally) does the game teach?

During this play test, I played with AI set to “adept” setting. I played as E.T.C in the Dragon Shire. I like to play E.T.C. “Rock God” because he is rated high in the survivability category. Otherwise I probably would have died more. The respawn timer can be long at times so it’s annoying to wait for resurrection. In the Dragon Shire players have to hold the two dragon shrines (north and south sides of map) then a player has to activate the dragon in the center of the map. This is hard with AI players because I cannot tell the AI to stay at one shrine or another to defend while I take the middle, or devise any sort of strategy. Instead I have to predict what my AI teammates will do then fill in the gaps. I did not get to activate the first dragon in the match. The opposing team did and I defended it fair enough. I did however win the other two dragons and I won the match on the third dragon spawn. I thought for sure I was going to lose after I lost the first dragon because I could not communicate with the AI. However I didn’t give up, perseverance lead to victory.

So what did I learn?
  • To understand strategies to win map objectives
  • Reminded of short cut keys by in game tutorials
  • Predictive play based on AI
  • Basic talent building as leveling
  • Basic ability rotation based on cooldowns and various types of skirmishes

Critique Heroes of the Storm: What established constraints, or "game mechanics" (such as specific rules systems), inhibited alternative forms of learning or creative expression? Yet why do these constraints matter?

Heroes of the Storm has many constraints based on the battleground and hero talents and abilities. These are important because it helps pace gameplay and balance team progression through a map. Understanding how these mechanics work are critical to successful advancement. I did not read up on any talents for E.T.C. but I picked what felt right to me at the time. When a hero levels up during the match, a player can choose talents to gain abilities. This happens quickly and frequently in the match and in the middle of action. It is hard to read about these talents and continue with the action simultaneously. It would be strategic to read up on talent specifications in combination with other heroes as teammates. I also forgot the short cut keys since last I played so I kept forgetting to mount up with “Z” and hearth back to my base with “B.” The in game tutorial kept on reminding me to mount up. This was mostly helpful and mildly annoying. I also don’t feel like I had set ability rotation down, I just used my abilities whenever they were not on cooldown. I’m sure with more practice and time to understand these abilities I could be more effective.

From our second or third cycle of course readings: What one reading - and specific idea - do you find most relevant to playing, and perhaps learning with/from, Heroes of the Storm? And why?

The primary reason why I wanted to play Heroes of the Storm was to compare my experiences in a modern, action packed, arcade-like RTS versus what I can recall from RoN and Warcraft II and III in comparison to Gee “Situated Language and Learning” (Gee 2004). Gee describes his experiences in RoN and Warcraft III and ultimately admits his failings, yet describes how incredible RTS games are at capturing learning scenarios. He describes game play in RTS games like moving through a “supervised fish tank” and how information is always given “just in time” (Gee 2004). I experienced this while playing Heroes of the Storm in a ways that were very appealing for learning. Such as, the game reminding me to mount up by using the shortcut key “Z.” The button would flash and “Uther,” the tutorial narrator, would also emote this with voice. The use of auditory and visual feedback in combination with play at the right time, allows learning to be reinforced in ways not necessarily possible in typical learning scenarios. Gee also discusses game experiences in contrast to typical schooling scenarios. Such as players being able to self assess in very formative ways on time and task, versus in school, you may have to turn in your homework before any assessment is given (Gee 2004). I would recommend this game to anyone who wants to experience the ultimate action packed in-game tutorial.


Tuesday, April 12, 2016

Learning Reflections of Games & Learning Part 2

Understanding of games and learning

During cycles 4-5 in the Games & Learning course at UC Denver, the way in which I think about games, gaming cultures, and affinity spaces have been transformed. Most of the research conducted during this phase has been on gender issues surrounding gaming culture. Topics about gender in game cultures are interesting to me for several reasons. Firstly, I am a white male who is privileged to be positioned in gaming culture as the dominant “norm.” However I do not identify with dominant white heteronormative culture. None the less, just by being present in some gaming communities, one could assume that I would or could perpetuate sexist or biased notions by being privileged as such. Because of this, it is very important that I do understand these issues. And as an educator, especially in settings where I may be implementing game based learning scenarios, it’s critical to exemplify fairness and equality and understand gender issues that may come to light during game play and gaming community experiences.

Secondly, I teach courses in a program where females make up approximately 95% of the student body. I don’t think this will be the case throughout my career but it certainly matters to me in how I am perceived as being a male instructor to a female dominant class. And how does the influence of the male instructor and perhaps one male student in a classroom of 16 change the dynamic? If I were to implement some GBL in these classrooms, would gender issues arise based on gameplay and subjects in the games? Based on minimal research I would suspect “yes” as it’s fairly easy to assume most games are created by males who are mostly ignorant to gender issues. Thus, likely to perpetuate tropes against women. And would the culture in the classroom assume some things based on the prevalent male culture in gaming media and communities? Like men assuming they would be better prepared to play games than women because of the association with gaming and dominant male culture. Or perhaps some students would be involved in affinity spaces or modding communities. It’s possible they may face some discrimination or biases based on gender identity. It’s especially important to understand these scenarios as they are likely to come to light at some point in time during game based learning situations.

My latest research, as well as cycle 4 readings have helped me explore gender in more detail as can be seen in two blog posts and ongoing annotated discussions via open course texts.

Will Video Games Become "Gender Neutral"?

The Sims 2 and Gender, Not so "Nurturing"

Peer Networking to improve learning

Through both peer play sessions, and social networking, mostly via Twitter and blogging, my understanding of games and learning has been enhanced this term. Although during the phase in the course in which this reflection concerns, I have done less networking via Twitter than before. Instead the focus in networking has been on the affinity space, Unity Community, and supporting sites and blogs. However I have not abandoned Twitter, I still used it to network in different ways with less educational focused individuals, and rather, gamers and game developers. Using the hash tag #gamedev and #unity3d has helped me acquire some followers and helped me introduce myself to indie game developers. Some people have asked me to check out their game and give them some feed back, etc. I’ve also met some friendly bots who have helped broadcast my messages.
I have also reached out to Curtiss Murphy, a moderator for Unity Community (otherwise known as Gigiwoo) “Game Design” forum, via Twitter, Unity Community forums, and his website blog. I have also reached out to some other members of Unity Community. Although so far the discussions have appeared somewhat one sided (no one has directly responded to me) I have learned about community members via their resources and profile pages. I have learnt how Curtiss Murphy in particular is situated in Unity Community as a veteran game designer. He has numerous resources on his website for members interested in learning more about game design. Such as his game design zen podcast and associated blog discussion. Several of Curtiss’s podcasts have helped me learn about game design and in general life issues around the games business. The podcasts also shows how Curtiss is situated as a mentor and game design veteran for Unity Community. This networking, although one sided and observatory, is a big part of understanding game communities and affinity spaces.
There are three blog posts associated with ongoing developments with the affinity space project for the course:

My Affinity With Unity 3D

Situated Learning As a Member of Unity Community

Is Unity Community a Nurturing Affinity Space?

What can I do to improve engagement in the affinity space project?

Becoming a participatory member of Unity Community has been interesting. There are many forums covering many topics with many threads. The threads seem to mostly be about an individual problem or topic rather than general concerns. Because of this, it seems like engagement by users is limited to 1-2 comments per thread, then they move on. Some comments are never addressed as users tend to skip over some postings to focus on another. Not because a particular post was off topic or “trolling” necessarily, but because there are other, more comments to address maybe more interesting. I have commented in detail on several threads but I have not received any direct responses. I am not sure if this is because of lack of interest about what I am saying? Or if the forum thread is “dead?” Maybe my profile does not indicate enough “status” or credibility for someone to take note? My next approach to improve engagement may be to say less in a post but post more times to several different people. I may also try to create an asset or idea about a game or game object and allow members to critique this. By taking the next step and producing artifacts for the community to consume I do believe I can become a more “included” community member.

What are my curiosities about games and learning moving forward?

As I move neck deep into the affinity space project, I'm really curious to learn more about Unity Community members and what drives them to participate. What do they learn about games and game creation by engagement in the space? There are a few filters in the interface for Unity Community to search for profiles based on number of postings, likes, etc. I would like to take a more in depth look at these users with the most amount of posts and see how they are situated in the space. Are they currently employed as a game developer? Are they a hobbyist? Do they work for Unity as a moderator or community enthusiast? How did they become so involved with Unity Community? By being extremely active members I’m sure there will be some evidence to demonstrate what these members are learning about games and games creation. I’m interested to find out if there are some particular things that are explored more in depth, as it concerns games and learning, by creating games or games assets than what could be experienced through playing a game only. Ultimately, I would like this inquisitive focus to allow me to explore more completely the affinity space project and round out the experience to be presented towards the end of this month.

Sunday, April 10, 2016

The Sims 2 and Gender, Not so "Nurturing"

The continued scholarship and research, as part of the Games and Learning course at UC Denver, has lead me to explore adult learning, simulations, and gender and identity as it concerns gaming. For the most part, videogames and gaming cultures have been the focus. While I searched for articles related to these topics I discovered “Gender and Identity in Game-Modifying Communities” by Hanna Wirman in the Simulation & Gaming journal as part of Sage journals published in 2014. In this article Hanna describes her research based on email interviews with THE SIMS 2 players in Finland. She also described how the media received THE SIMS 2. Finally, Hanna discussed the marginalization of THE SIMS 2 players (Wirman 2014, 71). Hanna wrote her Phd. dissertation on “Playing The Sims 2” so you can bet this article is an incredible resource on the subject. I was interested to see how Hanna presented her research findings compared to what was “nurturing” in “Nurturing Affinity Spaces and Game Based Learning” by Gee.

Compelled to learn about THE SIMS and gender

Reading about THE SIMS 2 and gender is interesting because I’m oddly situated as a white male gamer whose profession is teaching and practicing interior design, a profession dominated by women. Before that I made games for a living, a profession dominated by men (especially when I was making games), and I don’t consider myself in any way shape or form a typical white hetero normal male. I have two students this semester that have talked about playing THE SIMS before seeking a degree program for interior design. For them it was the first step into some basic design and digital literacies including modding. One of the students is male, the other is female which is also interesting. Although I’ve been a gamer and part of gaming culture all of my life, I have not looked deeply into peeling away the layers of the onion to discover what many would suggest a culture dominated, and in some ways exclusive to, white male heterosexuals. The analysis Hanna provided in this article makes it much easier see these layers and subversive dimensions as THE SIMS 2 players and modders.

THE SIMS 2 in a male dominated gaming culture

Although THE SIMS 2 was a very successful game, journalist did not seem to know exactly how to handle it’s popularity. It’s a game deemed by popular culture to be dominated by the feminine domain and likened to “dollhouse” play. This poses a problem for media outlets dominated by male culture as the product is seemingly deemed “too feminine” for proper coverage (Wirman 2014, 74). Males admittedly playing, or wanting to play, THE SIMS 2 suffer emasculation at the hands of peers and society because of established gender roles associated with heteronormativity. Hanna described how one of her respondents reacts to her question:

HW: Why do you think they [male school mates] haven’t played [THE SIMS
games] themselves?
Player 5: I assume they just haven’t bothered to try, exactly because it is considered
a “girls” game, it would make them look somehow “sissy” in their friends’ eyes (Wirman 2014, 75).
Hanna went on to describe how playing THE SIMS does not earn the player much credibility or “capital” as a gamer. Because the game is devalued as such by being “too feminine” and not something seemingly more masculine like a first person shooter (Wirman 2014, 76).

“Skinning” as modding discredited

THE SIMS 2 supports and encourages modding and there are several types of modding communities. I first read about this in “Nurturing Affinity Spaces and Game Based Learning” by Gee. As Gee refers to affinity spaces about The Sims as shining examples of nurturing affinity spaces. What I did not learn by Gee and Hayes work was how modding, in particular by skinning, in THE SIMS 2 was considered within gaming communities to be a lesser form of modding. Hanna described this as “not fitting into the hacking paradigm.” Why? Hanna seems to suggest because skinning typically only addresses visual and aesthetic appearances, often deemed a more feminine form of modding. Where as coding or otherwise dramatically changing the way a game is played by hacking is considered more masculine in nature and typified by white male culture. Thus, devaluing skinning in THE SIMS modding communities. Is it women are more inclined to enjoy skinning and be less interested in coding because skinning may be thought of as feminine domain? Is it possible girls are not as reinforced in schooling as boys in math and engineering so that they would be more inclined to coding? There may be some truth there, but ultimately, Hanna suggests modding such as skinning (in THE SIMS 2) involves “taste,” in particular taste for fashion and home decoration which lends this form of modding to be discredited due to apparent feminine traits. (Wirman 2014, 83).

Marginalization of The Sims players

Hanna described the way in which the rest of the world received THE SIMS 2 similarly to the Finnish reception. THE SIMS players are marginalized both locally to Finland and globally. Most players that play THE SIMS do so exclusively which works to alienate them in more general gaming cultures (Wirman 2014, 87). Overall the description of THE SIMS 2 Hanna provided was a nice contrast to the more optimistic nurturing view Gee offers. To learn more about Hanna and to see her dissertation on THE SIMS 2, check out Hanna’s website.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

Is Unity Community a Nurturing Affinity Space?

BingoBob Profile

"I don't know what I don't know. Thanks for being patient with this newb." -BingoBob

A newb’s question

After spending some time getting acquainted with Unity Community, particularly the members of the “Game Design” forum, I started to dig into some analysis of this affinity space. Is it nurturing in a similar sense that Gee refers to in “Nurturing Affinity Spaces and Game Based Learning?” In seeking the answer to this question I wanted to see how a newb, BingoBob, was treated when he posed a common and important question: “What do I do with my great game Idea?” Often times this is the question that irks someone enough to wonder if they should make games. Unity, being an engine very popular for learning how to make games or game assets by use of it’s software and learning tools means it’s a good place for newbs to get started. BingoBob’s question overall was received well, however a part of his statement opened him up to some mild flaming, and certainly, some sarcasm. BoredMormon says: “Just throw it away. It’s a rubbish idea anyway.” His sentiments captured a recurring theme in the thread that no one wants to pay for ideas, they want to pay for a playable experience. In other words, a working prototype of a game. Ideas are a dime a dozen.

Hard work is expected

Making games takes specialized skills, knowledge, and experience to do it well. But BingoBob said: “I've messed around with Blender and Unity and researched what assets I would need to execute this plan but I just lack the skill and experience. And I really don't want to do all that work.” This statement, although honest, just insulted a community of creators in the Unity Community. You are expected to be working at something. Usually something niche and specialized being programming, art, design, or all of the above. BingoBob seems to struggle with this. Even Gigiwoo, a moderator, jumps in with a few choice words but ultimately reminds him “Like anything worth doing, it takes years of try, improve, and repeat. The answers to your questions are here.” Gigiwoo uses his design zen podcast to help reinforce his stance on the statement and with the provided link. Ultimately this is nurturing and establishes Gigiwoo as a community member who knows.

How did I respond to the question?

I added my own advice to BingoBob in the thread establishing myself as a gamer and educator and relating to his struggle:

Bingo Bob,
I'm with you in some ways. I often think of ideas for new games or experiences out of my own interest. Sometimes I get so excited about an idea and I start exploring ways in which I can create this experience. What I usually find out, is that I never have all of the skills needed to produce what I envision. This can be discouraging of course, but what it lead me to was finding others who are good at things that I am not. And through the process of connecting with others, I've also found that I enjoy talking about games, playing games with others, and experimenting / playing other people’s games concepts or mods and critiquing that experience more than I enjoy making assets for games. You may find some similar things about yourself once you dive into a community, such as you've done here in Unity Community. So have you thought about being more exploratory in nature rather than executive? Surround yourself with people who enjoy making games, share and critique your experiences. Dive into Unity and a find a specialized niche you would like to explore. Make a mod and share it with others. Seek out local game companies and see if they are looking for testers. Essentially, get involved first, see what you find out about yourself and games. What will your trajectory be?
Have you checked out a local Unity group you may meetup with in person?
User Groups
I'm an educator, here's where I'm coming from with my advice to you:
John Seely Brown on Motivating Learners (Big Thinkers Series)

Joining participatory cultures

I have not seen a response to my posting however I think it’s sound advice and I hope to inspire others by the John Seely Brown video that was linked. In my experiences as an educator and student I always think back to those times where a teacher was able to take a look at me and see my struggles and get into my head to motivate me. Perhaps BingoBob is capable of producing games inspired by his ideas but he’s struggling to make the commitment? The responses in the thread proves there are many people in the community who want to offer advice and help freely. It’s definitely a nurturing affinity space, we are trying to get BingoBob to join us in our commitment to learning how to effectively create games. Many times taking that leap to join others is the hardest part.

Gee, James Paul; Hayes, Elisabeth; “Nurturing Affinity Spaces and Game-Based Learning.” (2008)